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Terry C Hrubec, DVM, PhD

Terry Hrubec
Terry Hrubec, DVM, PhD
Professor for Anatomical Sciences
Department/Discipline: Anatomical Sciences
Campus: Virginia
Office: 349
Fax: 540-231-5338
Email: Contact
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Year University Degree
1994 Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University PhD - Veterinary Medical Sciences
1991 VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine, VPI & SU DVM
1985 The George Washington University MS - Biology
1982 The George Washington University BA - Fine Arts
1981 The George Washington University BS - Zoology

Research Interests

My research focuses on developmental and reproductive toxicity, particularly aimed at preventing birth defects. I am interested in the maternal and paternal influences on fetal development of the nervous and immune systems. I examine how parental environmental exposures, nutrition, and the microbiome alter development, with an emphasis on folic acid, and common quaternary ammonium disinfectants and cleaners.


  • Best Poster Award in Basic Science. E. Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Annual Research Recognition Day 2008, 2009, 2013, 2014, 2015.
  • Mentor for recipient of 2014 MARTA Bradford Award at Teratology Society Annual Meeting, Belleview, WA.
  • Mentor for Outstanding PhD Student of the Year, VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine, 2011.
  • Teratology Society 47th Annual meeting, 2007 – Invited panelist, Pittsburg, PA.
  • Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01) 2002.
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1984-present


  • Delphi Panel on Core Syllabus on Embryology and Teratology
  • Society of Toxicology, 2015-present
  • Society of Toxicology, 2015-present
  • American Association of Anatomists, 2003-present
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1984-present

Selected Publications

Year Faculty Citation PMID
2020 Terry Hrubec

Abdelhamid L, Cabana-Puig X, Mu Q, Moarefian M, Swartwout B, Eden K, Das P, Seguin R, Xu L, Lowen S*, Lavani M*, Hrubec T, Jones C, Luo X. Quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants reduce lupus-associated splenomegaly by targeting neutrophil migration and T-cell fate. Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 21;11:575179. PMID: 33193366.

2016 Terry Hrubec

Melin VE, Shanteau P, Melin TE, Dessify B, Nguyen C, Shea CS, Hrubec TC. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes. Reproductive Toxicology. 2016 Jan;59:159-66.

2014 Terry Hrubec

Melin VE, Potineni H, Hunt P, Griswold J, Siems B, Were SR, Hrubec TC. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. Reproductive Toxicology. 2014 Dec; 50:163-70.

2014 Terry Hrubec

Melin VE, Johnstone DW, Etzkorn FA, Hrubec TC. Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2014 Jun;186(6):3717-24.

2014 Terry Hrubec

Hunt P, Hrubec TC. Letter to the Editor in response to Hostetler. Reproductive Toxicology. 2014;52:120-121. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.11.010.

2012 Terry Hrubec

Mallela MK, Hrubec TC. Reduction in valproic acid-induced neural tube defects by maternal immune stimulation: role of apoptosis. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology. 2012 Aug; 95(4):296-303. PMID 22767483.

2012 Terry Hrubec

Hrubec TC, Prater MR, Mallela MK, Gogal RM Jr, Guo TL, Holladay SD. Diverse ability of maternal immune stimulation to reduce birth defects in mice exposed to teratogens: a review. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 2012 May; 3(3):132-9.

2012 Terry Hrubec

Goodwin D, Hrubec TC, Klein BG, Strobl JS, Were SR, Han Q, Lindsay DS. Congenital infection of mice with Toxoplasma gondii induces minimal change in behavior and no change in neurotransmitter concentrations. Journal of Parasitology. 2012 Aug; 98(4):706-12. PMID: 22468990.

2011 Terry Hrubec

Mallela MK, Were SD, Hrubec TC. Neural tube defects in mice exposed to tap water. Environmental Toxicology. 2011 Nov; 26(6):633-40. PMID: 20549630.

2010 Terry Hrubec

Hrubec TC, Smith SA. Hematology of fishes. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, 6th ed. DJ Weiss, KJ Wardrop, eds. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010; Chapter 126.